6 edition of Ethical Theory found in the catalog.
May 1, 2007 by Blackwell Publishing Limited .
Written in English
|The Physical Object|
|Number of Pages||816|
A being of higher faculties requires more to make him happy, is capable probably of more acute suffering, and certainly accessible to it at more points, than one of an inferior type; but in spite of these liabilities, he can never really wish to sink into what he feels to be a lower grade of existence When observing an unethical position, the virtue theory considers the person's reputation and purpose for committing the act. Mill's explanation of the concept of utility in his work, Utilitarianism, is that people really do desire happiness, and since each individual desires their own happiness, it must follow that all of us desire the happiness of everyone, contributing to a larger social utility. Mill " and can be more "a crude version of act utilitarianism conceived in the twentieth century as a straw man to be attacked and rejected.
By this I mean the principle that, in deciding what is good and what is bad for a given individual, the ultimate criterion can only be his own wants and his own preferences. At least two points of commentary are in order here. According to this theory, what we believe our duties are will drive how we act in different situations. Obligations that were enforced would, by the virtue of the force behind them, not be freely undertaken and would not be in the realm of the ethical. In the last chapter of Utilitarianism, Mill concludes that justice, as a classifying factor of our actions being just or unjust is one of the certain moral requirements, and when the requirements are all regarded collectively, they are viewed as greater according to this scale of "social utility" as Mill puts it. He is accused of committing the naturalistic fallacybecause he is trying to deduce what people ought to do from what they in fact do; the fallacy of equivocationbecause he moves from the fact that 1 something is desirable, i.
It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied. For this alone Aristotle's book is still worth reading. Nussbaum also believes these are problems for Rawls's non-Hobbesian style of contractualism. Beyond this libertarian core morality, however, Narveson is skeptical that human wants are uniform enough to allow us to say that any non-libertarian moral norm will work to everyone's advantage. Utilitarianism Utilitarianism is a moral theory that implements fair choices in an effort to ensure the least amount of harm is done to all parties involved.
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Narveson too often falls prey to the false dichotomy of assuming a choice between either libertarianism or a radical same-income-for-all style of egalitarianism, when in fact there is a range of middle alternatives between either extreme.
Some school level textbooks and at least one UK examination board  make a further distinction between strong and weak rule utilitarianism.
Scanlon, are not mentioned, let alone considered in any detail. But are these possible harms likely enough to outweigh the likely benefits of oppression?
Virtuous acts require conscious choice and moral purpose or motivation. And might not even more ruthless oppression make these possible harms even less likely? When observing an unethical position, the virtue theory considers the person's reputation and Ethical Theory book for committing the act.
Therefore, the result of a situation makes that decision OK. The principle of utility does not mean that any given pleasure, as music, for instance, or any given exemption from pain, as for example health, are to be looked upon as means to a collective something termed happiness, and to be desired on that account.
Book V: Discussion of Justice. After offering the standard line that you ought not to be so sure you won't get caught, he appeals to a notion that a kind of "disharmony of soul" results from my behaving in ways that I admit are designated as to-be-sanctioned by social institutions that I myself have reason to want to exist People have not changed significantly in the many years since Aristotle first lectured on ethics at the Lyceum in Athens.
In fact, for centuries, philosophers have come up with theoretical ways of telling right from wrong and for giving guidelines about how to live and act ethically. Beyond this libertarian core morality, however, Narveson is skeptical that human wants are uniform enough to allow us to say that any non-libertarian moral norm will work to everyone's advantage.
This is not to say that reflective equilibrium is free of difficulties. These are separate concepts. You make a decision that will be best for everyone involved. It is worries like these, for instance, that led Peter Railton, in his classic paper on moral realism, to identify a person P's good with what P would want for himself were he fully informed, vividly aware, and instrumentally ideally rational.
If the majority benefits from the oppression say that owing to rampant discrimination, the oppressed minority does all the menial jobs in society for rock-bottom pay then it looks like in this case moral treatment of the minority is not to the advantage of members of the majority.
It would cut no ice with Narveson, moreover, were I to reply that in proposing this objection I am employing the well-known methodology of reflective equilibrium. At the very least, the relevance of these empirical considerations needs to be acknowledged. A person's satisfaction is not part of any greater satisfaction.
For example, if a man steals three loaves of bread and a gallon of milk to feed his family, it would be supported by deontology because of the moral responsibility and obligations of the man to care for his family. Moore admits that it is impossible to prove the case either way, but he believed that it was intuitively obvious that even if the amount of pleasure stayed the same a world that contained such things as beauty and love would be a better world.
The second caveat is that antisocial preferences, such as sadism, envy and resentment, have to be excluded. People sometimes have irrational preferences.
It is an empirical question whether libertarianism untried, and pie-in-the-sky according to many would do a better job of providing these benefits than, say, a European-style social democracy or even an American-style minimal welfare state. And if the fool, or the pig, are of a different opinion, it is because they only know their own side of the question Mill's approach is to argue that the pleasures of the intellect are intrinsically superior to physical pleasures.Nov 17, · About The Ethics of Theory.
In The Ethics of Theory, Robert Doran offers the first broad assessment of the ethical challenges of Critical Theory across the humanities and social sciences, calling into question the sharp dichotomy typically drawn between the theoretical and the ethical, the analytical and the prescriptive.
In a series of discrete but interrelated interventions, Doran exposes. The book includes: Realistic scenarios which gently introduce a theory and demonstrate how it can be applied to a real-life ethical dilemma that everyone can relate to, such as borrowing money from a friend; Real organisational case studies in each chapter which illustrate how each theory can be applied to real business situations.
Ethical theory serves as the foundation for ethical solutions to the difficult situations people encounter in life.
In fact, for centuries, philosophers have come up with theoretical ways of telling right from wrong and for giving guidelines about how to live and act ethically. Here are a few ethical theories to whet your appetite: Virtue [ ]. Introduction to Ethical Studies An Open Source Reader Lee Archie John G.
Archie. Ethical Theory: Classical and Contemporary Readings (Philosophy) by Louis P. Pojman and a great selection of related books, art and collectibles available now at atlasbowling.com Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: An International Forum is a double-blind peer-reviewed philosophical journal which aims to publish the best work produced in all fields of atlasbowling.com welcomes high quality submissions regardless of the tradition or school of thought from which they derive.